Essential Oil Directory

The essential oil directory is an alphabetical listing of essential oils. The oils are listed in the following format:

PLANT NAME (Botanical name)
Geographical source
Description and usage information
Usage Warning: If applicable

Common Sense Warning:
Always follow usage warnings and see “Essential Oil Safety Tips” regarding the use of essential oils.

ALLSPICE BERRY (Pimenta officinalis)
Excellent for baking. It’s fragrance provides a spicy scent in
potpourris. The oil is also used to flavor beverages, candy, condiments
and baked goods.
Aromatherapy: warming, cheering, sense-enhancing
Usage Warning: Avoid use in sun.

ALMOND, BITTER (Prunus armeniaca)
United States
The source of natural cherry and amaretto flavors. Almond Bitter is the
most potent of all flavors; use one drop per pint.
Aromatherapy: strengthening, sense-enhancing
Usage Warning: Dilute well, skin irritant. Avoid use in sun.

ANGELICA ROOT (Angelica archangelica)
Belgium, Holland, France, Germany
A warm, musky, earthy aroma with excellent staying power. Only small
quantities are needed to create an effect in a perfume. The flavor is
bitter and reminiscent of a blend of parsley and celery.
Aromatherapy: anchoring, restorative, strengthening
Usage Warning: Avoid use in sun.

ANISE (Pimpinella anisum)
Spain, France, Italy, Morocco
Gives licorice candy and chewing gum their distinct flavor. Anise is
also added to perfumes for a rich, sweet fragrance.
Aromatherapy: cheering, sense-enhancing, mildly euphoric

BALSAM PERU (Myroxylon pererae)
El Salvador
May be used to soothe chafed skin and impart a rich, earthy scent to perfumery.
Aromatherapy: exotic, anchoring, strengthening

BASIL (Ocimum basilicum)
France, United States
Wide range of culinary uses. Basil’s floral, spicy odor is also excellent for use in perfumes.
Aromatherapy: clarifying, uplifting, energizing, strengthening, refreshing
Usage Warning: Avoid if pregnant. Avoid use in sun.

BAY (Pimenta racemosa)
Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Dominica
Often used in hair treatments to stimulate the scalp. It has a
powerful, spicy, sweet aroma and is used to produce bay rum fragrance.
Aromatherapy: relaxing, warming

From an uncommon citrus fruit. Its fruity, floral scent is excellent when used as a room spray.
Aromatherapy: uplifting, normalizing, confidence-building
Usage Warning: Avoid use in sun.

BLACK PEPPER (Piper nigrum)
India, Indonesia, Malaysia
One of the oldest known spices, primarily used in flavoring.
Particularly interesting effects are obtained when it is used sparingly
in perfume blends, especially with rose.
Aromatherapy: warming, vitalizing, invigorating.

CAMPHOR, WHITE (Cinnamomum camphora)
China, Japan
Commonly used in scenting detergents, soaps, disinfectants, deodorants, room sprays and other household products.
Aromatherapy: clarifying, energizing
Usage Warning: Not approved by the FDA for internal consumption.

CARDAMOM SEED (Elettaria cardamomum)
India, Guatemala, Sri Lanka
Appropriate (in very small quantities) for a wide variety of culinary
uses. The oil has a spicy aroma with floral undertones and can be used
in masculine and floral perfumes.
Aromatherapy: sense enhancing, warming, exotic

CARROT SEED (Daucus carota)
Used to provide a spicy-sweet aroma for exotic and natural-type
perfumes. In skin care, carrot seed oil is used to tone and stimulate
elasticity and for cleansing purposes (should be diluted 1 part carrot
seed to 10 parts carrier oil).
Aromatherapy: replenishing, nourishing, restoring

CASSIA (Cinnamon) (Cinnamomum cassia)
China (Wild)
The distinct spicy flavor of cinnamon bark. It is used to flavor every
kind of food as well as toothpaste, mouthwash and chewing gum.
Aromatherapy: euphoric, energizing, warming.
Usage Warning: Cinnamon is very irritating to the skin and can cause an allergic reaction with repeated use.

CEDARWOOD (Juniperus mexicana scheide)
United States
A woody balsamic aroma. It is used in perfumery to add body and a warm
note to any blend. Cedarwood can also be applied to the inside of a
wood chest for a cedarwood scent.
Aromatherapy: harmonizing, relaxing, anxiety-reducing

CELERY SEED (Apium graveolens)
France, India, United States
A spicy, warm flavor used to enhance flavor in soups, sauces, vegetable
juices, meats and pickles. This oil can also be used in minute
quantities in perfumery.
Aromatherapy: nourishing, warming

CHAMOMILE, GERMAN (Matricaria chamomilla)
Hungary, Morocco, Germany, Russia
Oil of German chamomile (also known as blue chamomile). The blue color
comes from the component azulene which is formed during the
distillation of the oil. The odor is sweet and apple-like and adds a
warm, long-lasting undertone in elegant perfumes. Chamomile is used in
massage oils and other herbal preparations.
Aromatherapy: relaxing, soothing, nourishing

CHAMOMILE, ROMAN (Anthemis nobilis)
Hungary, Belgium, France
Often used in perfumery. It blends well with bergamot, jasmine, neroli,
and clary sage, lending a warm, fresh note when added in small
Aromatherapy: relaxing, replenishing


CINNAMON LEAF (Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Indonesia, Ceylon
Used to flavor spiced fruits, baked goods, pickles and candy. The
flavor and aroma are more reminiscent of cloves than cinnamon. It
provides a hot, spicy and somewhat bitter flavor.
Aromatherapy: refreshing, vitalizing

CITRONELLA (Cymbopogon nardus)
Indonesia, Sri Lanka
Lemony, grassy aroma. It is used for scenting room and outdoor sprays, as well as household products.
Aromatherapy: purifying, vitalizing

CLARY SAGE (Salvia sclarea)
Blends well with a wide variety of essential oils for perfumery with a sweet, spicy scent.
Aromatherapy: centering, euphoric, visualizing
Usage Warning: Avoid if pregnant.

CLOVE BUD (Eugenia caryophyllata)
Madagascar, Indonesia, Comoro Islands
Used in mouthwash, toothpaste, chewing gum and dental preparations. It
is useful in the kitchen for both sweet and savory dishes. The oil has
a powerful, spicy-fruity aroma.
Aromatherapy: warming, sense-enhancing
Usage Warning: Clove oil is highly irritating, avoid contact with skin. Avoid if pregnant.

CORIANDER SEED (Coriandrum sativum)
France, Holland, Russia
Wonderfully mild, sweet taste. It can be combined with bergamot for a
popular candy flavor. The fragrance of the oil is spicy, aromatic and
pleasantly sweet.
Aromatherapy: relaxing, gently clarifying

CYPRESS (Cupressus sempervirens)
France (Cypress)
Has a refreshing, spicy and pine needle-like aroma often used as a modifier in pine fragrances.
Aromatherapy: purifying, balancing
Usage Warning: Not approved by the FDA for internal consumption.

EUCALYPTUS (Eucalyptus globulus)
Spain, Portugal, Australia, France, China
Commonly used to scent topical preparations such as liniments and
salves. It also serves as a flavoring in cold and cough products such
as inhalants, cough drops and syrups.
Aromatherapy: purifying, invigorating, cooling
Usage Warning: Not approved by the FDA for internal consumption.

FENNEL, SWEET(Foeniculum vulgare)
Spain, France, Italy, Germany, Poland, Japan
Sweet, warm-spicy, aromatic oil for both flavoring and fragrance.
Fennel is used extensively in imitation maple extracts, candy, anisette liqueur, baked goods and desserts.
Aromatherapy: restorative, warming, invigorating
Usage Warning: Dilute well, skin irritant. Avoid if pregnant. Avoid use in sun.

FIR NEEDLE(Abies alba)
Russia, Austria (Wild)
Fresh spicy scent. A few drops on a light bulb, in the carpet, or
through a diffuser will evoke the thick fir forests of the high
country. During the holidays, this oil will fill a room with the
festive aroma of a freshly cut Christmas tree.
Aromatherapy: centering, refreshing, harmonizing
Usage Warning: Not approved by the FDA for internal consumption. Dilute well, skin irritant.

FRANKINCENSE (Boswellia carteri)
Somalia, Ethiopia, India
Sweet-woody, peppery fragrance. Frankincense is used extensively for incense and fine perfumery.
Aromatherapy: relaxing, restorative, gently clarifying, visualizing, meditative
Usage Warning: Not approved by the FDA for internal consumption.

GERANIUM (Pelargonium graveolens)
France, Morocco, China
Delightfully sweet scent. An important ingredient in all types of
fragrances, it has a powerful, leafy-rose aroma with minty undertones.
It is also used in skin care products for both its fragrance and
astringent cleansing properties.
Aromatherapy: balancing, normalizing

GINGER (Zingiber officinale)
China, Jamaica
An important culinary oil with a spicy-woody flavor. It is used to
flavor fruit dishes, cookies, cakes, condiments, meats, liqueurs and
soft drinks — especially ginger ale.
Aromatherapy: warming, strengthening, anchoring

GRAPEFRUIT (Citrus paradisi)
United States
Citrus aroma and flavor. It can be used as a flavoring in candy, frozen
desserts, baked goods and carbonated beverages.
Aromatherapy: balancing, refreshing, cheering
Usage Warning: Avoid use in sun.

HYSSOP (Hyssopus officinalis)
France, Italy
A spicy, camphor-like strong scent. Hyssop blends well with clove,
lavender, rosemary, sage, clary sage and other citrus oils.
Aromatherapy: refreshing, cleansing
Usage Warning: Avoid if pregnant. People with high blood presure should avoid. People with epilepsy should avoid.

JASMINE ABSOLUTE (Jasminum grandiflorum)
Morocco, France, Italy
A very powerful fragrance with a full, rich, honey-like sweetness. The
fragrance of jasmine is a component in so many perfumes that there is
an old saying “No perfume without jasmine.” A tiny amount will go a
long way.
Aromatherapy: relaxing, sensual, exotic, romantic

JUNIPER BERRY (Juniperus communis)
Italy, Yugoslavia
A balsamic, woody, pine-needle scent. It is used with citrus oils in
room sprays, and in masculine perfumes, aftershaves and spicy colognes.
Juniper is also used as an ingredient in gin, and for flavoring
bitters, liqueurs, meats and baked goods.
Aromatherapy: strengthening, refreshing, restoring
Usage Warning: Avoid if pregnant.

LAVENDER (Lavendula angustifolia)
China, France, Tasmania
A classic scent for perfume and a wide array of skin and hair products.
It has a sweet, balsamic, floral aroma. It is occasionally used as a
flavoring in chewing gum, fruit flavors, candy and beverages. See also:
Lavendar Field
Aromatherapy: balancing, soothing, gently clarifying, normalizing.

LEMON (Citrus limomum)
United States
Widely used in beauty care. This oil is cold pressed from the rind;
three dozen lemons are used to produce each 1/2 ounce.
Aromatherapy: energizing, uplifting, refreshing, cheering
Usage Warning: Avoid use in sun. Dilute well, skin irritant.

LEMONGRASS (Cymbopogon citratus)
Guatemala, Haiti, Sri Lanka, China
A cleanser for oily skin and used in shampoo to add luster to the hair.
It has a powerful, citrus aroma and is a preferred fragrance in room
and outdoor sprays, soaps and detergents. Lemongrass is widely used in
perfumes and in the production of vitamin A.
Aromatherapy: vitalizing, cleansing
Usage Warning: Dilute well, skin irritant.

LIME (Citrus aurantifolia) United States, Mexico
Dozens of limes are needed to produce 1/2 oz. of oil. Uses of the oil include beverages, sherbet and hard candy.
Aromatherapy: equalizing, refreshing, cheering
Usage Warning: Avoid use in sun.

MARJORAM, WILD (Thymus masticina)
Spain (Wild)
Useful in massage oil for sensitive skin. (Marjoram hortensis, called sweet marjoram, is the commonly used cooking spice — wild marjoram is used in aromatherapy and body care.)
Aromatherapy: purifying, clearing, strengthening
Usage Warning: Not approved by the FDA for internal consumption. Avoid use if pregnant.

MELISSA (Melissa officinalis)
Produced from the herb lemon balm. It takes up to 600 pounds of fresh
lemon balm plants to yield one ounce of oil. The oil has a lemony aroma
and sharp, floral-lemon flavor.
Aromatherapy: relaxing
Usage Warning: dilute well, skin irritant.

MYRRH (Commiphora molmol)
Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia
One of the oldest-known perfume materials. Mentioned 3,700 years ago,
myrrh has a long history of use as incense, especially with
frankincense, during the Christmas season.
Aromatherapy: centering, visualizing, meditative
Usage Warning: Not approved by the FDA for internal consumption. Avoid use if pregnant.

NEROLI (Citrus aurantium)
Morocco, France, Italy, Tunisia
Distilled from the flowers of the bitter orange tree. Neroli has a
refreshing, spicy, aroma. It is one of the most widely used floral oils
in perfumery. Neroli is also used in preparations such as a massage
oils, skin creams, and bath oils.
Aromatherapy: centering, relaxing, soothing, exotic, sensual

NUTMEG(Myristica fragrans)
Indonesia, East Indies
Contains the characteristic flavor and fragrance of nutmeg spice. It is
used in cooking as a replacement for the spice. One or two drops are
sufficient in most recipes. It is also used in men’s fragrances and
spicy perfumes.
Aromatherapy: rejuvenating, uplifting, energizing

ORANGE, SWEET (Citrus sinensis)
Brazil, United States, Spain
One of the most popular flavors in the world. Orange is widely used in
foods of all types. In perfumery sweet orange is often used as the
heart of floral blend.
Aromatherapy: cheering, refreshing, uplifting
Usage Warning: Avoid use in sun.

ORMENIS (Ormenis mixta)
Morocco (Wild)
Used diluted in vegetable oil to condition and bring out highlights in
blond hair. In perfumes it provides a long-lasting sweet undertone.
Aromatherapy: soothing, nurturing, relaxing
Usage Warning: Not approved by the FDA for internal consumption.

PATCHOULI (Pogostemon cablin)
Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia (Wild)
A widely used fixative in perfumes. The very intense aroma is described
as earthy, rich, sweet, balsamic, woody and spicy.
Aromatherapy: romantic, soothing, exotic, sensual
Usage Warning: Not approved by the FDA for internal consumption.

PEPPERMINT (Mentha piperita)
United States
A strong, cool, minty flavor. Peppermint oil is refreshing in both
taste and aroma. A popular flavor in breath lozenges, toothpaste and
Aromatherapy: vitalizing, refreshing, cooling
Usage Warning: Dilute well, skin irritant. Avoid use if pregnant.

PETITGRAIN (Citrus aurantium)
France, Italy, Morocco, S. America
Made from the leaves and twigs of the bitter orange tree. This oil has
a fresh and sweet fragrance with a woody undertone. It is added to
massage and bath oils and hair care products.
Aromatherapy: relaxing, soothing, stabilizing

ROSE, ABSOLUTE (Rosa centifolia)
Morocco, France
A sweet, deep, long-lasting aroma. Rose absolute is an economical
alternative fragrance to rose otto essential oil. It is used
extensively in medium and high-priced perfumes of all types for its
aroma and fixative qualities.
Aromatherapy: romantic, creative, gently uplifting
Usage Warning: Avoid if pregnant.

ROSE OTTO (Rosa damascena)
Bulgaria, Russia, Turkey
A warm, intense, immensely rich fragrance. Rose oil is one of the
oldest and best known of all essential oils. It is used in all types of
perfumes to lend beauty and depth to the aroma. A drop or two in a
massage, facial, or bath oil creates a luxurious, soothing experience.
The oil is also used in skin creams, powders, and lotions.
Aromatherapy: romantic, creative, gently cheering
Usage Warning: Avoid if pregnant.

ROSEMARY (Rosemarinus officinalis)
France, Spain, Morocco, Tunisia (Wild)
Used in hair care, fragrance, cooking and cosmetics. Brush on or wash
into dark hair to condition and bring out color highlights.
Aromatherapy: clarifying, warming, invigorating
Usage Warning: Avoid if pregnant. People with high blood pressure or epilepsy should avoid.

ROSEWOOD (Aniba rosaeodora)
Also known as Bois De Rose. Rosewood is a spicy oil used to enliven the
scent of dried flowers, soaps, lotions, and massage oils.
Aromatherapy: gently strengthening, relaxing
Usage Warning: Not approved by the FDA for internal consumption.

SAGE (Salvia officinalis)
France, Spain, Yugoslavia
Used in cooking and scented products. There are many types of this
common garden herb, all closely related. Spanish sage grows wild
throughout Spain.
Aromatherapy: warm, soothing, cheering
Usage Warning: Avoid if pregnant. People with high blood pressure or epilepsy should avoid.

SANDALWOOD (Santalum album)
India, Indonesia
Rare perfume used in ancient rituals as a spiritually purifying
ointment. Sandalwood is a valuable fixative which blends well with
other oils. It is a very mild oil suitable for dry skin.
Aromatherapy: relaxing, centering, exotic, sensual

SPEARMINT (Mentha spicata)
United States, China
Energizing to the mind and body. Use in bath water for its refreshing
effect. Make a facial steam of spearmint oil in a pot of boiling water
to help cleanse and refine pores.
Aromatherapy: refreshing, cooling, gently vitalizing

TANGERINE (Citrus reticulata)
United States, Brazil
Great astringent (must be properly diluted) for oily skin. Tangerine is
also a tasty addition to beverages and desserts.
Aromatherapy: cheering, uplifting
Usage Warning: Avoid use in sun.

TEA TREE (Melaleuca alternifolia)
Delivers a warm, spicy, medicinal aroma. It is used in colognes and
aftershaves and as a scent in room sprays, antiseptics, gargles,
shampoo, acne creams, soaps and other skin care products.
Aromatherapy: cleansing, purifying, uplifting
Usage Warning: Not approved by the FDA for internal consumption. Dilute well, skin irritant.

THYME, RED (Thymus vulgaris)
Spain (Wild)
An intense, herbaceous aroma and flavor. Thyme is used to scent soaps,
colognes and aftershaves and for cooking meats, vegetables and soups.
Aromatherapy: cleansing, purifying.
Usage Warning: Dilute well, skin irritant. Avoid if pregnant. People with high blood pressure should avoid.

VETIVER (Vetiveria zizanoides)
Reunion, India, Indonesia, Philippines
A rich, woody scent. It is used as a perfume fixative, like sandalwood.
Aromatherapy: soothing, relaxing, anchoring
Usage Warning: Not approved by the FDA for internal consumption.

WINTERGREEN (Gualtheria promcumbens)
Fresh, cleansing mint flavor.
Aromatherapy: refreshing, bracing,invigorating.
Usage Warning: Harmful or fatal if taken internally.
As little as one teaspoon can be fatal if ingested by a child. Not
approved by the FDA for internal consumption. Dilute well, skin
irritant. Avoid if pregnant.

YLANG YLANG III (Cananga odorata)
Comorro Islands, Reunion, Madagascar, Indonesia (Wild)
Means “flower of flowers.” Ylang Ylang is a richly fragrant oil, best used for body perfume and massage oil.
Aromatherapy: sensual, euphoric

YLANG YLANG EXTRA (Cananga odorata)
Comorro Islands, Reunion, Madagascar, Indonesia
Distilled from the early-morning-picked flowers of the cananga tree.
The first oil drawn off is the highest quality and is graded “Extra.”
Ylang Ylang Extra has an intense, floral, jasmine-like aroma. It is
used in exotic and floral perfumes.
Aromatherapy: romantic, alluring, exotic

Aura Cacia, used with permission.

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